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The capital escaped the worst of the violence of the ten-year conflict of the Mexican Revolution . The most significant episode of this period for the city was the February 1913 la Decena Trágica ("The Ten Tragic Days"), when forces counter to the elected government of Francisco I. Madero staged a successful coup. The center of the city was subjected to artillery attacks from the army stronghold of the ciudadela or citadel, with significant civilian casualties and the undermining of confidence in the Madero government. Victoriano Huerta , chief general of the Federal Army , saw a chance to take power, forcing Madero and Pino Suarez to sign resignations. The two were murdered later while on their way to Lecumberri prison .  Huerta's ouster in July 1914 saw the entry of the armies of Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata , but the city did not experience violence. Huerta had abandoned the capital and the conquering armies marched in. Venustiano Carranza 's Constitutionalist faction ultimately prevailed in the revolutionary civil war and Carranza took up residence in the presidential palace.