In estimating the impacts on economic activity and employment from undoing these spending caps, we assume that the composition of discretionary spending is essentially unchanged by shifts in the level of spending. It is theoretically true that cuts to infrastructure spending could be less or more steep than overall spending cuts, but this is nearly impossible to forecast. Further, the discretionary spending cuts currently constituting the policy baseline in the United States (., the budget “sequester”) are across-the-board cuts to every category of discretionary spending, making the assumption that the composition of discretionary spending cuts will be unaffected by the level in fact consistent with current budget law.
WHO is continuing these studies in collaboration with the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), in the context of the ‘Stockholm Convention’, an international agreement to reduce emissions of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including dioxins. A number of actions are being considered to reduce the production of dioxins during incineration and manufacturing processes. WHO and UNEP are undertaking global breast milk surveys, including in many developing countries, to monitor trends in dioxin contamination across the globe and the effectiveness of measures implemented under the Stockholm Convention.
A study by Erik Brynjolfsson , Yu (Jeffrey) Hu , and Michael D. Smith  finds that the long tail has grown longer over time, with niche books accounting for a larger share of total sales. Their analyses suggested that by 2008, niche books accounted for % of Amazon's sales while the consumer surplus generated by niche books has increased at least fivefold from 2000 to 2008. In addition, their new methodology finds that, while the widely used power laws are a good first approximation for the rank-sales relationship, the slope may not be constant for all book ranks, with the slope becoming progressively steeper for more obscure books.