Steroid receptor function

Due to the possible cholesterol issues, moderate anabolic steroid cycles may be best served with SERM’s in order to protect against estrogenic related side effects. SERM’s will not negatively affect cholesterol; in fact, SERM’s like Nolvadex have been shown to promote healthy cholesterol levels due to their ability to act as estrogen in the liver. However, for many a SERM won’t be enough and AI’s will be necessary. If an AI is necessary, the individual should limit his use and only use as much as is actually needed. Some have suggested that a 10mg per day dosing of Nolvadex along with your Arimidex use may actually aid in cholesterol management.

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is thought to mainly function as a transporter and reservoir for the estradiol and testosterone sex hormones. However it has also been demonstrated that SHBG can bind to a cell surface receptor (SHBG-R). The SHBG-R has not been completely characterized. A subset of steroids are able to bind to the SHBG/SHBG-R complex resulting in an activation of adenylyl cyclase and synthesis of the cAMP second messenger. [19] Hence the SHBG/SHBG-R complex appears to act as a transmembrane steroid receptor that is capable of transmitting signals to the interior of cells.

The hypothalamus, the seat of neuroendocrine control, is exquisitely sensitive to gonadal steroids. For decades it has been known that androgens, estrogens and progestins, acting through nuclear hormone receptors, elicit both organizational and activational effects in the hypothalamus and basal forebrain that are essential for reproductive function. While changes in gene expression mediated by these classical hormone pathways are paramount in governing both sexual differentiation and the neural control of reproduction, it is also clear that steroids impart critical control of neuroendocrine functions through non-genomic mechanisms. Specifically, endogenous neurosteroid derivatives of deoxycorticosterone, progesterone and testosterone, as well and synthetic anabolic androgenic steroids that are self-administered as drugs of abuse, elicit acute effects via allosteric modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. GABAergic transmission within the hypothalamus and basal forebrain is a key regulator of pubertal onset, the expression of sexual behaviors, pregnancy and parturition. Summarized here are the known actions of steroid modulators on GABAergic transmission within the hypothalamus/basal forebrain, with a focus on the medial preoptic area and the supraoptic/paraventricular nuclei that are known to be central players in the control of reproduction.

Laws and Penalties:  Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).  Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.  The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal.  Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense.  The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense.  If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double.  While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS.  State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).

Steroid receptor function

steroid receptor function

Laws and Penalties:  Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).  Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.  The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal.  Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense.  The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense.  If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double.  While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS.  State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).

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