The fungus Aspergillus tamarii metabolizes progesterone to testololactone in high yield through a sequential four step enzymatic pathway which, has demonstrated flexibility in handling a range of steroidal probes. These substrates have revealed that subtle changes in the molecular structure of the steroid lead to significant changes in route of metabolism. It was therefore of interest to determine the metabolism of a range of 5-ene containing steroidal substrates. Remarkably the primary route of 5-ene steroid metabolism involved a 3beta-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4) isomerase (3beta-HSD/isomerase) enzyme(s), generating 3-one-4-ene functionality and identified for the first time in a fungus with the ability to handle both dehydroepiansdrosterone (DHEA) as well as C-17 side-chain containing compounds such as pregnenolone and 3beta-hydroxy-16alpha,17alpha-epoxypregn-5-en-20-one. Uniquely in all the steroids tested, 3beta-HSD/isomerase activity only occurred following lactonization of the steroidal ring-D. Presence of C-7 allylic hydroxylation, in either epimeric form, inhibited 3beta-HSD/isomerase activity and of the substrates tested, was only observed with DHEA and its 13alpha-methyl analogue. In contrast to previous studies of fungi with 3beta-HSD/isomerase activity DHEA could also enter a minor hydroxylation pathway. Pregnenolone and 3beta-hydroxy-16alpha,17alpha-epoxypregn-5-en-20-one were metabolized solely through the putative 3beta-HSD/isomerase pathway, indicating that a 17beta-methyl ketone functionality inhibits allylic oxidation at C-7. The presence of the 3beta-HSD/isomerase in A. tamarii and the transformation results obtained in this study highlight an important potential role that fungi may have in the generation of environmental androgens.
Clemens was one of the most accomplished pitchers in baseball history when he was accused of doping. Clemens won seven Cy Young awards, an American League MVP award, and two World Series titles, but all of that was called into question after Canseco's 2005 book accused him of using amphetamines, anabolic steroids and human growth hormone during his career, though he was never suspended from the game. He was also named in the 2007 Mitchell Report, although he has consistently and unconditionally denied the allegations that he used steroids, including in testimony to a Congressional committee in 2008. Clemens was later indicted on perjury charges in 2010 and tried in court, but was found not guilty of perjury in 2012. Clemens has claimed that hard work helped him dominate the majors into the latter stages of his career, and not .
A preparation of living Arthrobacter simplex cells immobilized in polyacrylamide gel, which showed steroid‐Δ1‐dehydrogenase activity, was studied. The entrapped microorganisms catalyzed the transformation of cortisol to prednisolone and this reaction was followed spectrophotometrically or with the aid of thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). About 40% of the original activity found with free bacteria was retained after immobilization. The steroid dehydrogenase activity of polyacrylamide‐entrapped A. simplex could be raised to a minor extent in alcoholic solvents or by addition of a cofactor such as menadione. On incubation in various nutrient media, on the other hand, the activity could be increased considerablyl, usually 7–10 times. Possible causes for the observed increase in activity have been investigated, and microbial growth of the original entrapped microorganisms appears to be the major reason. Frozen activated preparations of immobilized A. simplex showed only a small loss of activity on storage for at least four months. A semicontinuous batch wise operation with immobilized A. simplex in different nutrient media was carried out. At the end of the experiment the steroid transformation capacity was g steroid per day per g gel (wet weight).