Of 186 nonelective explorations symptoms were localized to the left side in 52% and to the right side in 48%. Information on the direction and degree of testicular rotation was available in 162 of 186 cases (87%) and anticipated medial rotation occurred in only 108 (67%). Lateral rotation in 54 of 162 cases (33%) occurred in 28 of 84 (33%) with left torsion and in 26 of 78 (33%) with right torsion. A median of 540 degrees of torsion (range 180 to 1,080) was noted in the 70 orchiectomy cases (38%) and a median of 360 degrees (range 180 to 1,080) was noted in the 116 salvaged testes (62%). Manual detorsion was attempted in 53 orchiopexy cases with residual torsion in 17 (32%). Testicular atrophy developed in 27% of the patients.
During aging, there is a gradual decrease in the ability to maintain skeletal muscle function and mass. This condition is called " sarcopenia ", and may be distinct from atrophy in its pathophysiology. While the exact cause of sarcopenia is unknown, it may be induced by a combination of a gradual failure in the " satellite cells " which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell survival.